Punjab Youth Policy
Youth Affairs, Sports, Tourism and Archaeology Department
Government of Punjab.gif
Government of the Punjab

http://www.findpk.com/yp/html/Punjab-Pakistan-Map.png Text Box: Map of the Punjab Province


Preface. I
Acknowledgements. III
Abbreviations. V
1.       Introduction. 1
1.1     Contours of Punjab Youth Policy 2012. 2
1.2     Punjab Youth Policy 2012: Salient Features. 4
2.       Mandate, Principles and Objectives. 7
2.1     Mandate. 7
2.2     Vision. 7
2.3     Definition of ‘Youth Development’ 7
2.4     Core Values and Principles of Policy. 7
2.5     Aim and Objectives of the Punjab Youth Policy 2012. 9
3.       Challenges to Youth in The Punjab. 11
3.1     Economic Challenges. 11
3.2     Education for Youth Development 11
3.3     Youth Population and Health. 11
3.4     Social Empowerment 12
3.5     Political Participation and Engagement of Youth. 13
3.6     Challenges of Governance:  Mainstreaming Youth Development in Public Policy. 13
4.       Strategic Action Plan: Guidelines for Youth Development in the Punjab. 15
4.1     Economic Empowerment 15
4.2     Education for Youth Development 17
4.3     Youth Population and Health. 18
4.4     Social Empowerment 19
4.5     Political Participation and Engagement of Youth. 20
5.       Institutional Mechanism for Implementation. 22
5.1     Proposed Punjab Youth Development Foundation. 22
5.2     Proposed Punjab Youth Commission. 23
5.3     Advisors to the Chief Minister on Youth Development 24
5.4     Youth Development Organizations. 24
5.5     District and Tehsil Youth Councils. 25
5.6     Punjab Youth Endowment Fund. 25
5.7     Monitoring and Evaluation. 25
6.       Youth Development: Achievements by Government of the Punjab. 26
6.1     Chief Minister Youth Development Programme. 26
6.2     Chief Minister’s School Roadmap. 28
6.3     Enhancing the Quality of College Education. 28
6.4     Focus on Special Education. 29
6.5     Modern Education for Students of Deeni Madaris. 29
6.6     Self-Employment and Entrepreneurship Promotion. 30
6.7     Women Economic Empowerment 30
6.8     Special Initiative for Youth in Jails. 30
6.9     Vocational Training Programmes. 31
6.10        Punjab Sports and Student Competitions. 31
7.       History of Youth Policy. 32
7.1     Youth Affairs in the Punjab. 33
8.       Bibliography. 36







Punjab Youth Policy 2012 is an expression of unswerving commitment of the Government of the Punjab to empower youth in the province. It provides a comprehensive policy framework for integrated visioning and planning, implementation and coordination in all government departments and in public-private partnership with regard to matters relating to youth development in the Punjab. The policy also acknowledges work done by the youth led organizations, private sector organizations, donors, foundations and local community based groups that are positively contributing towards youth development.


The need for the Punjab Youth Policy is necessitated by the convergence of perceptions and workable understanding points among multiple stakeholders on what we have to do about the youth issues. This has been complemented with a province-wide consultative process among different public and policy stakeholders for agreed upon direction and ownership of the policy. More importantly youth from all walks of life i.e. rural/ urban, literate/illiterate, male/female, and minority, etc. took part in the consultative process.  It also engaged elected and non-elected officials of relevant policy making bodies and government departments, civil society organizations, media, public interest leaders and youth experts in touch with youth development programmes and policies. Besides directly involving more than 1500 individual youth, the exclusive feature of this province-wide process has been involvement of formal and informal youth groups, and students of 30 universities, CSOs and international development agencies, government departments, legislature and media concurrently. Gender balance in all consultative meetings was another unique mark of the process.


The draft of the policy was shared with the Administrative Secretaries of the Government of Punjab. A conference was held under the chairmanship of Principal Secretary to Chief Minister Punjab, to seek esteemed views and valuable input to further chisel the policy. Secretaries to the Government of Punjab have contributed and the policy has been finalized to accommodate and highlight the organic incipient initiatives in the process for the educational, professional and skill development of youth in addition to other co-curricular programmes for their amelioration.


This policy is a dynamic and vibrant document. It accommodates the emerging realities and contours of integrated youth development. The Government of Punjab has determination and resolve to encourage youth to uphold the core values of hard work, honesty, integrity, patriotism and motivation for the noble cause of progress and prosperity of Pakistan. Through integrated youth development, this document seeks to consolidate national harmony and integration and promote the attributes of peace, friendship, diversity, pluralism, tolerance and respect for mutual coexistence among youth of the Punjab.



The Punjab Youth Policy (2012) recognizes the emerging need to combine youth development work spread over various sectors (i.e. youth, labor, health, education, population, sports, culture, finance, etc.) within the framework of a comprehensive youth policy that integrates efforts of multiple stakeholders and turns youth into a dividend for the nation: in a country which is facing youth bulge and massive outnumbering of young people amidst lesser investment on social development sector interventions.


The policy covers all key issues of youth and has provided a framework that promises social, economic and political empowerment of youth. The central theme of the policy is integrated youth development by creating an enabling environment to help them develop skills, competencies and a passion for a positive contribution to the society. It develops human resource base of the youth and aims to transform them into a dividend and much needed human social capital through grooming their competencies, skills and social commitment. This enabled youth force will lead the nation by the Grace of God and increase its honor and dignity in the comity of nations.


The policy puts special premium upon social volunteerism and civic and political engagement of youth.  This would enable mass youth mobilization not only during natural calamities or national emergencies but also contribute in the healthy placement of youth in normal times in the affairs of local communities, educational institutions and other civic structures in Punjab. Moreover, this is an inclusive policy that focuses the youth in every segment of society irrespective of caste, creed, status, gender or geographic location. It engages youth in economic, social, political and civil activities and adds value to on-going campaigns of the Punjab Government in education, health, employment, equal opportunity, merit and transparency and good governance.


We hope and pray for the virtuous, visionary and talented youth with impeccable moral, financial and professional integrity enabled in an environment with positive externalities to provide future leadership for the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. May God and His Prophet (PBUH) continue blessing Pakistan and all of us.



Haroon Ahmed Khan


Youth Affairs, Sports, Archaeology and Tourism Department

Government of the Punjab





The formulation of the public policy is a huge and gigantic task. The job becomes more daunting and challenging once the number of stakeholders is huge and there are many varieties of contributions, often challenging and at times conflicting. In case of preparation of Punjab Youth Policy 2012, the youth of Punjab has been the centerpiece of the theme and the whole gamete rests upon the human social capital. The valuable contribution by the youth organizations, parliamentarians, international organizations, officers in Government of the Punjab, Secretaries to Government of the Punjab and other colleagues is thankfully acknowledged.


On behalf of Punjab Youth Affairs, Sports and Archaeology Department, I am grateful to Mian Muhammad Shahbaz Sharif Chief Minister Punjab for his vision and his enormous support for the adoption of Punjab Youth Policy. I feel great honor to present a very special thank to Rana Mashhood Ahmed Khan, Deputy Speaker Punjab Assembly for his continuous mentoring,  and direction throughout the process.  He has been tremendous motivational spirit behind this task. A number of honorable parliamentarians took part during consultations including Ms. Arifa Pervez Khalid, Mr. Muhammad Khurram Gulfam, Mr. Mohsin Latif, Mr. Baleegh-ur-Rehman, Ms. Marvi Memon, and Ms. Maiza Hameed. We are grateful to all. 


I wish to extend my sincere gratitude to Mr. Rabbi Royan Country Representative, Mr. Yu Yu Deputy Representative, and Ms. Sadia Atta Mehmood National Program Officer of UNFPA for providing technical and financial support to initiate and accomplish this crucial task. We also acknowledge the efforts and contribution of Bargad - Organization for Youth Development - and its Executive Director, Ms. Sabiha Shaheen, who were over-all responsible for implementing the Punjab youth policy project. They worked hard to arrange around 45 consultative rounds of discussions with various stakeholders on youth policy and supported all activities leading to the present policy document.


Exceptional thanks are also due to Mr. Iqbal Haider Butt as a Lead Consultant of Bargad/UNFPA for preparing the Punjab youth policy document, developing and articulating its contents and  researching background information in consultation with Youth Affairs, Sports, Archaeology and Tourism Department, Bargad and UNFPA. It is pertinent to mention here the efforts and contribution of Bargad team members Mian Khuram Shahzad, Ms. Salma Butt, Mr. Nauman Ali Chaudhary, Ms. Muqadas Iqbal, Mr. Sarmad Raza Nayak, Ms. Saiqa Rani and Ms. Bushra Sadiq for their valuable inputs and timely logistical support to carry out field work for policy development. Besides Bargad all Punjab based youth representatives, youth Networks, NGOs, CSOs, FBOs and CBOs participated actively throughout the process.


My heartfelt thanks are due to Mr. Nasir Mahmood Khosa, Chief Secretary Punjab, Mr. Javaid Aslam Chairman P&D Department, Mr. Nadeem Hasan Asif, Principal Secretary to Chief Minister Punjab, Dr. Tauqir Shah, Secretary to Chief Minister, Mr. Aslam Javaid, Chief Industries P&D Department, Mr. Arshad Bin Ahmad, Secretary Human Rights & Minorities Affairs, Mr. Khizar Hayat Gondal, Secretary Local Government Department, Mr. Mohiy-ud-Din Wani, Secretary Information & Culture Department, Dr. Shujjat Ali, Secretary Industries Department, Dr. Ijaz Munir, Secretary Higher Education Department, Mr. Abdullah Sumbal, Secretary Special Education Department, Dr. Pervez Ahmad Khan, Secretary Literacy& NFBE Department, Dr. Syed Abdul Hassan Najmee, Secretary Law & Parliamentary Affairs Department,  Ms. Irum Bukhari, Secretary Women Development Department, Mr. Farhan Aziz Khawaja, MD Punjab Small Industries Corporation, Mr. Tariq Mehmood Pasha Secretary Auqaf Department, Sardar Akram Javed, Secretary Social Welfare Department, Mr. Qaisar Saleem DG Population Welfare, Mr. Shahid Ahmad Bhutta Additional Secretary Home Department, Mr. Hasan Iqbal, Secretary Labor and Human Resource Department, Syeda Kulsoom Hai Deputy Secretary CM Secretariat and Mr. Humayun Mazhar DG Labour Punjab for their invaluable inputs and contribution.


I owe special gratitude to Mr. Usman Anwar, Director General Sports and Youth, for putting hard work to plan and finalize the Punjab Youth Policy.


I acknowledge Mr. Ali Salman for his invaluable and substantive review of the policy document and other experts from civil society for their inputs, particularly Dr. Kaiser Bengali, Mr. Muhammad Tahseen and Mr. Aamir Riaz.  Acknowldgement is also due to Mr. Mohsin Abbas Syed, Director Legal and Parliamentary Affairs, Government of the Punjab for legal vetting of the document.


I am grateful to my colleagues at the YASAT Department for their support. They include Rana Muhammad Tahir Khan former Additional Secretary, Mr. Ishrat Ullah Khan Niazi Deputy Secretary (Admin), Mr. Shabbir Bhatti Deputy Secretary (Planning) and Mr. Ijaz Malik Section Officer (General).


In the end, I thank each of those innumerable youth who took out time to reflect on a policy of very much their own making and hopefully they will find it truly representative of their aspirations.


Haroon Ahmed Khan


Youth Affairs, Sports, Archaeology and Tourism Department

Government of the Punjab




ADB                     Asian Development Bank

ADP                      Annual Development Programme

CBO                      Community Based Organization

CM                        Chief Minister

CSO                      Civil Society Organization

DCO                     District Coordination Officer

DMO                     District Monitoring Officer

DYA                     Directorate of Youth Affairs

DYC                     District Youth Commission

EDO                      Executive District Officer

EFA                      Education For All

ESR                       Education Sector Reform

FBO                      Faith Based Organization

GDP                      Gross Domestic Product

GER                      Gross Enrollment Ratio

GNI                       Gross National Income

GNP                      Gross National Product

GPI                       Gender Parity Index

GRE                      Graduate Record Examination

HDI                       Human Development Index

HEC                      Higher Education Commission

HED                      Higher Education Department

IDSP                     Institute for Developing Studies and Practices

IYF                       International Youth Foundation

KM                        Kilo Meters

L&NFBED           Literacy and Non Formal Basic Education Department

M&E                     Monitoring and Evaluation

MDGs                   Millennium Development Goals

MICS                    Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey

MIS                       Management Information System                 

NCHD                  National Commission for Human Development

NEAS                   National Education Assessment System

NEC                      National Education Census

NEMIS                 National Education Management Information System         

NEP                      National Education Policy

NFBE                    Non Formal Basic Education

NGO                     Non-Governmental Organization

NIPS                     National Institute of Population Studies

NOC                     No Objection Certificate

NTS                       National Testing Service

PDWP                   Provincial Development Working Party

PEF                       Punjab Education Foundation

PEEF                     Punjab Education Endowment Fund

PESRP                  Punjab Education Sector Reform Programme

PhD                       Doctor of Philosophy

PMIU                    Project Management and Implementation Unit

PPIU                     Policy Planning Implementation Unit

PPP                       Public Private Partnership

PSDF                    Punjab Skills Development Fund

PSDP                    Public Sector Development Programme

PSIC                     Punjab Small Industries Corporation

PSLM                    Pakistan Social and Living Standards Measurement Survey

PYC                      Punjab Youth Commission

PYDF                    Punjab Youth Development Foundation

PYEF                    Punjab Youth Endowment Fund

PYP                       Punjab Youth Policy

PYVM                  Punjab Youth Volunteers Movement

QAT                      Quality Assurance Test

TVE                      Technical & Vocational Education

TYC                      Tehsil Youth Council

UNFPA                 United Nations Population Fund

UNICEF               United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund

USAID                 United States Agency for International Development

YASAT                 Youth Affairs, Sports, Archaeology & Tourism Department























“Pakistan is proud of its youth, particularly the students who have always been in the forefront in the hour of trial and need. You are the nation-builders of tomorrow and you must fully equip yourself with discipline, education, and training for the arduous task lying ahead of you. You should realize the magnitude of your responsibility and be ready to bear it.”


Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah

31st October 1947


1.    Introduction

Punjab Youth Policy 2012 comes at a very crucial time in the history when youth is destined to play a very decisive, effective and meaningful role for the development of the nation. The challenges ahead for Government and all other stakeholders are to groom and guide the youth to live in peace and harmony following the cardinal principles given by the founder of the nation-Unity, Faith and Discipline. The demographic increase in the population of youth can help to translate it into an economic dividend by engaging the youth in knowledge management and economic activities. The policy will enable an environment to facilitate the youth in exploiting their full potential through access to facilities and socio-economic opportunities for their self-development.
The youth have the immense potential because they have will, energy and endowed with extensive thinking, passion for struggle, resilience, perseverance, creativity, innovation and advancement imbibed in the tapestries of mind. The youth are ready and amenable to adapt to constant changes because they are young and are in search of truth and destiny and understand that the change is the only constant in the universe. The youth of Pakistan is dedicated and enthusiastically charged and patriotic but emotions are not enough. 
Punjab Youth Policy 2012 defines youth as a period in which young people prepare themselves to be an active and responsible citizen of the society. It is a period of transformation from family dependent childhood to independent adulthood and integration in the society as a responsible citizen. Age factor provides a useful and working definition to characterize the transition to adulthood.
Other independent variables may include the increasing maturity of young people as defined differently by different cultures. Development practitioners consider a particular age cohort as an age-bracket because of its tangibility being measurable, identifiable and verifiable. Other key milestones may include the increasing maturity of young people as defined differently by different cultures; the age limit of child benefits; the end of full-time compulsory schooling; the voting age, and the minimum age for standing for elections. [1] Among such various indicators, practitioners consider ‘Age’ as a working definition of youth because of its tangibility. The governments also adopt this definition. The United Nations regards youth as persons between the age brackets of 15-24 years. According to the Pakistani official standards, youth are people between 15-29 years of age. The Punjab Youth Policy also subscribes to this definition.
The Punjab Youth Policy comes at a time when the province is pressurized by increasing population. The poverty also continues to suppress the Punjab population despite relatively high availability of health and education facilities in the province and is limiting its efficiency to translate into favorable outcomes in health and education. While the Punjab Youth Policy adopts holistic approach catering to all key needs of the youth, its key test is to amicably equip youth with social, political and economic empowerment and reduce the poverty in the Punjab. Moreover, it also meets the challenges of governance and institutional mechanism for youth development.
It is this context of socio-economic profile in which the Punjab’s youth has to live and will have to be supported to ensure their participation and empowerment. It is more likely that when our youth is confronted with unemployment or underdevelopment and they are idle with lesser hopes for the future – even more in certain locations - they would need policy and programmatic support for their social, economic and political regeneration.
This policy caters to the contextual needs and situation of the Punjab’s youth. It has been prepared after thorough literature review and consultation with multiple public and policy stakeholders including youth belonging to different backgrounds across the province. It is also informed by relevant national policy documents and has benefited from previous consultative process over the formulation of now defunct national youth policy of Pakistan.

1.1     Contours of Punjab Youth Policy 2012

Punjab Youth Policy 2012 is cognizant of the fact that Punjab is the most populous province of Pakistan. According to the World Gazetteer, the estimated population of the province in early 2012 was 93.96 million people. [2] The province has an area of 2, 05,344 square kilometers; with the average population density of 441 persons per square kilometer. Around 48.4% (i.e. 43.77 million) population of Punjab province comprises females. Literacy rate of the province (10 years and above) is 60% (male 70% and female 51%).
Punjab Youth Policy 2012 presents a strategic framework of youth development for helping the young individuals acquire social, moral, physical, spiritual, cognitive and emotional competencies. The policy ensures their participation and empowerment.
According to the Chief Minister’s vision for Punjab, “that every citizen yearns for is a vision of relentless pursuit of modernization, innovation, confidence and tolerance.”
Punjab aims to achieve the stated vision within a generation, in a manner that sustains a high quality of life and provides equal opportunities to its citizens to realise their true potential. Punjab plans to meet contemporary and future challenges by deploying knowledge inputs and human social capital.  Its goals reflect the aspirations and potential of the people of the province in the context of a fast-changing world. Punjab Youth Policy 2012 frame work considers a range of concomitant strategic alignments. The underlying theme is to embrace much desired, the most demanded and urgently needed transformation to create new opportunities based on strengths and utilization of national resources. The citizens will have greater access to quality education, as well as basic amenities like health, water and sanitation. Freedom of enterprise and enlarged opportunities will have the potential to transform the lives of the majority but the benefit of social protection will also provide sufficient cushion to the most vulnerable, neglected, less-affluent, marginalized, un-reached and disenfranchised.
Punjab Youth Policy 2012 acknowledges the forces of globalization and dissemination of information and technology, which are likely to change the scale and character of human enterprise. The policy particularly aims to use ICT for wider dissemination of knowledge for the empowerment of those at the brink of society.
In pursuance of Punjab Youth Policy 2012, Government of the Punjab affirms its commitment to establish the rule of law as a bedrock principle impacting on all walks of life and encourage freedom of enterprise and innovation in the market place together with state responsibility for the provision of basic services to all citizens, including education, healthcare, water and sanitation, shelter and security.
Punjab Youth Policy 2012 recognizes that Islamic ideology and ethos are the guiding force for citizens of Pakistan not merely as a matter of belief, dogma and ritual but as a living practice and a set of social and moral norms. This ideology binds us to human dignity,  human rights, social justice, rights and respect for minorities, management of affairs through consultation and democratic principles, moral values of charitableness, equality as citizens, social and economic equity, tolerance and universal brotherhood; these are some of the cardinal principles enshrined in the Quran and Sunnah of the Prophet (PBUH).
Punjab Youth Policy offers both policy and programmatic interventions to be implemented for youth between the ages of 15 to 29 years. Various departments of the government in many ways are already investing on youth in the fields of education, technical education, health, sports, population and agriculture, etc. But it can be said that the cumulative effect of youth-oriented schemes cannot be actually estimated from these stand-alone investments. Nor we can have a consolidated map of our related work in terms of short term gains and long term outcomes. It is solely because we are presently working without an integrated youth policy, coordination and an implementation mechanism that can bind together multiple stakeholders of youth development in the Punjab. In view of this policy and governance vacuum, the Punjab Youth Policy has the potential to integrate youth empowerment work into government structures of the province.
The policy concentrates on emerging and dire needs to combine youth development work spread over various sectors i.e. education, social welfare, literacy, skill development, entrepreneurship, youth, labor, health, population, sports, finance, etc. It is inclusive of all parameters of holistic development of youth.  Such a comprehensive framework of the Policy will integrate efforts of multiple stakeholders, both in public and private sectors, and turn youth into a dividend for the Punjab and Pakistan.

1.2     Punjab Youth Policy 2012: Salient Features

This policy proposes concrete mechanism for economic, social and political empowerment of the youth. It recommends establishing a Job Bank On-Line, to conduct job market surveys and to build a database to inform the youth about potential openings and to guide the educational and vocational training institutes.
The policy also envisages establishment of Youth Venture Capital Fund by public-private partnership to support new business ideas and entrepreneurship amongst young men and women.
The Youth Policy will encourage all universities to provide on campus jobs to at least 5% of their full-time students and to set up career placement offices. It will also start Punjab Internship Programme with public-private partnership to maximize opportunities for fresh graduates.
The other measures recommended under framework of the youth policy are:
       Launching of a ‘Punjab Youth Volunteers Movement (PYVM)’ that will start from the school level to encourage community service among youth.
       Allocation of 5 percent quota to youth under the local government law to include them in decision making and increase leadership opportunities for youth in the Punjab.
       Initiating National and international job market analysis.
       Model Danish Schools at the divisional level will be established.
       Skills development through IT will be facilitated by providing laptops on merit to students.
       Provision of stipends for technical education especially in the South Punjab.
       Scholarships to high achievers will be provided.
       Extra-curricular competitions among students will be promoted.
       Technical education to unemployed educated youth and provision of micro-credits.
       Update curriculum of Technical education and prepare a phased expansion programme of such training facilities.
       Local crafts based youth enterprises for income-generation at village and urban-neighborhood level will be established and encouraged and professional assistance for marketing of such enterprise products will be provided.
       Sectoral initiatives in livestock and dairy development i.e. Rehabilitation of Mustahqeen-i-Zakat (eligible to receive alms money) by promotion of livestock keeping, training of unemployed youth as veterinary workers, replication of Idara-e-Kissan model, provision of milk cooling tanks and promotion of livestock under the Barani Village Development Project.
       Institute a programme of certification of informally acquired skills by technicians and workers.
       Arrange entrepreneurship and training programme and guide and train youth to do business, to innovate and expand business.
       Encourage large organizations, companies and enterprises to provide internship opportunities equal to at least 5% of their sanctioned/approved strength of officers to young people/graduates.
       Uniform basic and secondary education to promote integration and social cohesion.
       The government will reserve 15 % quota for girls in employment.
       The government would establish a “Youth Helpline” for counseling of adolescents on their health and reproductive issues.
       The government will initiate life-skill programmes for children and youth in schools.
       Strict measures for implementing laws against forced and early marriages.
       Undertake education and communication activities in reproduction rights at the school level with cultural sensitivities of the regions in view;
       Portrayal of equality of boys and girls through all public messages and curricula
       Develop and promote Punjab Internship programme through public-private partnership.
       Re-activation of Boys Scout and Girls Guides at school level and mentoring of youth on disaster management.
       Researches on the regional scale and depths of youth bulge in the Punjab.
       Province-wide sports activities and festivals will be organized.
       Inter-provincial youth exchange programmes hosted by local colleges and universities.
       “See Pakistan Programme” for youth mobility.
       Building of new youth hostels and encouraging private sector for affordable hotel business.
       Promote local languages, arts and music through institutions like PILAAC.
       Youth exposure trips will be organized to important government institutions like the Provincial Assembly of the Punjab.
       The government would engage youth in mass campaigns and emergencies i.e. i.e. Anti-Dengue, floods, etc.
Mainstreaming public policy with youth development as a cross-cutting theme, the youth policy will facilitate in setting uniform standards and competencies for students at different education stages irrespective of public, private or religious schooling backgrounds and for advocating safe/violence free campuses. The policy proposes to address holistic health needs of youth; strict measures for implementing laws against forced and early marriages; concept of volunteerism at school level; student unions/councils with pro-peace, women friendly and student centered politics at campuses by delinking them with mainstream political parties.
In order to implement its objectives and plans, the Punjab Youth Policy 2012 would establish a robust and efficient institutional mechanism for implementation of programmes. This will be done by instituting an autonomous body, to be called, the Punjab Youth Development Foundation (PYDF).
The Foundation will be headed by a Board of Directors that shall constitute the Punjab Youth Commission (PYC). The projects under the Punjab Youth Development Fund will be financed from a Punjab Youth Endowment Fund by one-time seed money from the government but eventually to be run on the public-private partnership basis.
There is a general unanimity of views and consensus of policy makers on future influence of youth upon their nations. [3] The Punjab Youth Policy 2012 is cognizant that youth is the most precious and productive asset for us. It is primary responsibility of the state to help youth transforming itself into human social capital and catalyzing the economic, social, cultural, sociological and political growth in the country. The situation of youth today presents the world with an unprecedented opportunity to accelerate growth and reduce poverty. In order to succeed in today’s competitive global economy; our youth must be equipped with social, economic and political competencies. The youth has talent, dynamism, imagination, ideals, considerable energies and vision. Their development and empowerment is, however, all the more challenging in developing countries like Pakistan with many competing and at times conflicting demands.


2.    Mandate, Principles and Objectives

2.1     Mandate

The mandate of Punjab Youth Policy 2012 is to facilitate, groom and guide the youth to live in peace and harmony, promoting attitudes, skills and knowledge and preparing them to shoulder responsibilities in the new millennium.
Youth Policy 2012 caters to the contextual needs and situation of the youth with the unique perspective of advocating, informing and catalyzing a comprehensive conception of youth development across the public policy domain.
Considering the input from the government departments, national and international organizations and donor agencies, the policy also proposes a cross-cutting agenda for youth development for all the partners. The elixir of Punjab Youth Policy 2012 is that this document will serve as the software of youth development as designed by the youth themselves.

2.2     Vision

Ø  To create an enabling environment for the youth, by providing them equitable opportunities to realize their full potential in a safe, secure, conducive and congenial environment, working for the developed and prosperous Pakistan, being the future custodian of the destiny of the nation and the most precious human social capital.

2.3     Definition of ‘Youth Development’

The literature offers various perspectives on youth development. However, given the context and perspective of youth in Pakistan, youth development can be defined as: ‘Youth Development is the phase of physical, emotional, spiritual and intellectual growth, between the age cohorts of 15 to 29 years, when youth actively pursue to develop attitude, skills, knowledge and competencies to realize their potential and strength at optimal level for the well-being of themselves, their family, communities and the country.’  

2.4     Core Values and Principles of Policy

The Punjab Youth Policy seeks to promote the following core values:
a)      Youth as agents of change and symbol of hope and aspiration for the nation;
b)      Youth as the positive potential and strength for the national development rather than as an instrument serving the vested interests; 
c)      Character, courage, excellence, tolerance, team play and perseverance as pillars of the superstructure of life of the youth; and
d)     Respect of human rights as enshrined in the Last Address of the Holy Prophet Muhammad (SAW); as adopted in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights 1948; and as Fundamental Rights endorsed by the Constitution of Pakistan 1973
The core principles of the Punjab Youth Policy are laid as under:
Youth Development: The central theme of the policy is the development of human didactic resource base of the youth as knowledge workers.
Youth Centric: The promotion of social, economic and political empowerment as well as engagement of youth into the mainstream of society, economy and governance.
Diversity: Youth empowerment interventions would recognize and acknowledge the diverse backgrounds from which youth come from and celebrate the roles played by different segmentation of the youth communities, gender, tradition and location i.e. rich, poor, urban, rural, male, female, etc.
Integration: The need for different key role players such as government, civil society, private and business sectors to coordinate their multi-sectoral efforts to ensure greater and coordinated impact in empowering youth.
Holistic: Youth empowerment initiatives would include all aspects of youth life and respond to their social, political and economic needs: so that they gain the necessary knowledge, skills, and experience required ensuring smooth transition into practical life.
Accessibility: Male and female youth of diverse backgrounds would access resources and services crucial to their integrated development. This would be done by oversight work within the framework of the Punjab Youth Policy: tracking progress of constitutional guarantees of free and compulsory education within minimum possible period: making technical and professional education generally available: ensuring the right of decent work, and provision of services against health and drugs risks.
Non-discriminatory: All youth empowerment initiatives would treat the youth equally irrespective of the biases of age, gender, religion, ethnicity, sexual orientation, disability or any other form of discrimination as enshrined in the Constitution of Pakistan. The policy shall discourage prejudices among the youth. Moreover, in the spirit of non-discriminatory approaches there is a need to encourage affirmative and equity-oriented actions that would create equal opportunities especially for the vulnerable communities. This principle is informed by the values of human dignity and respect for the human rights.
Transparency: Institutions and organizations involved in youth empowerment would operate in a transparent and accountable manner.
Participation and inclusion: Service providers would design policies, strategies and programmes for and with youth by sharing information, creating opportunities and involving them in decision making as active participants in their own development. Youth should own the outcomes of the development process and should view human rights as a fundamental basis for human development. They would be treated as equal partners in development programmes.
Social cohesion: Youth empowerment interventions would promote inclusion of young people as significant part of societal structures by involving them in democratic and nation-building activities. For that, their organized actions would be encouraged. Respect for difference of opinion, freedom of expression, tolerance and mutual coexistence.
Social protection: Various youth development interventions would seek to promote youth wellbeing by putting in place measures that seek to protect and address the needs of youth and reduces their vulnerability.
Public-Private Partnership: The objectives and plans of Punjab Youth Policy 2012 shall be, wherever possible, materialized by following public-private partnership approaches.

2.5        Aim and Objectives of the Punjab Youth Policy 2012

The Punjab Youth Policy 2012 aims to provide means and an enabling environment for youth development by informing the public policy domain and by facilitating the work of youth-led and youth-serving agencies. Its specific objectives are to:
1)      Mainstream youth on the agenda of public policy of the province as a cross-cutting theme;
2)      Promote and support the Youth Development Organizations by recognition, facilitation and coordination;
3)      Define and enforce standards for Youth Development Organizations within its mandate to ensure quality, transparency and accountability;
4)      Create incentives for promotion of volunteerism, civic participation, political engagement and responsible citizenship in the youth;
5)      Identify, promote and network young leaders (men and women) from business, academia, politics and civil society;
6)      Contribute to economic empowerment of youth by facilitating in job placement and internship placement;
7)      Increase in investment in relevant skills training, emphasizing training appropriate to the job market and the informal sector among other things, greater collaboration between employers and training providers;
8)      Promote entrepreneurship among young women and men by the provision of better information on market opportunities, training in business skills, access to capital (credit and other financial services), mentoring by qualified persons, and other business support services;
9)      Help bridge digital divide by promoting positive use of ICT in the marginalized youth especially in the semi-urban and rural areas;
10)  Focus on efforts and projects to improve the conditions of youth from minorities; economically backward districts; youth with disabilities and youth with special needs;
11)  Encourage and facilitate domestic and international youth exchange for improving peace, harmony, and mutual cooperation;
12)  Create awareness on high risk behaviors such as HIV/AIDS and STIs and increase availability of integrated sexual and reproductive health information and services for adolescents and youth, especially the most marginalized and help prevent HIV/AIDS and STIs;
13)  Help decrease gender discrimination in the youth behavior and conceptions and to improve gender equity;
14)  Promote healthy behavior in youth by facilitating their access to sports facilities; and
15)  Contribute actively to the World Youth Agenda as declared in the UN World Programme of Action for Youth, Commonwealth Youth Programme, SAARC Social Charter and the OIC International Forum for Youth.


3.    Challenges to Youth in The Punjab

Today, the youth issues are fast pacing towards debates in the public sphere and there has been gradual increase in investments on youth from the development donors and the government. The ascendance of youth issues to national priorities has primarily come from realization of the very outnumbering of young people in the country and due to what we call the ‘youth bulge’ and its potential implications that can catch the public eye.
The potential of youth is often repeated and benefits of youth empowerment are substantial. However, addressing youth requires an understanding of what issues and challenges they are facing in the Punjab. Knowing these challenges will help us identifying areas where the Punjab Youth Policy should put its premium. In this section, only an outline of these challenges is given from a more detailed analysis which was done as background study during earlier phase of formulation of the youth policy. Broadly, these challenges can be classified into economic, social and political spheres.

3.1     Economic Challenges

Research studies reveal that possibility of unemployment rate is much higher for better-educated youth, and the initial earnings of better educated youth are not much different from those of less-educated youth (compared with wages for adults with similar education levels) [4] . Besides unemployment, youth who aspire to be self-employed and become entrepreneurs face a series of hurdles. This ranges from lack of credit facilities to absence of proper mentoring.

3.2     Education for Youth Development

At the outset, we have to make a radical shift from the conventional thinking of looking at education/schooling as an automatic process for youth development. Schooling can at best indicate educational attainment, literacy and student enrolment on campuses. Equality of schools alone does not guarantee equal educational opportunity. Schools are merely one aspect of a child’s education, much of which occurs beyond the school doors, beyond the school day, and beyond the realm of (lecture-based) academics.

3.3     Youth Population and Health

3.3.1.      The Youth Bulge and Demographic Transition in Pakistan

Pakistan is undergoing a dramatic demographic transition. According to the recent projections made by US Census Bureau, population of Pakistan in mid-2012 is estimated to be 190,291,129 and the active age group of youth falling between the age of 15-29 years (57,862,590) contributes to 30.4% of this total projected population. Youth under 29 years of age are estimated at 123,934,419, which is 65.1 percent of the total Pakistani population [5] . This "youth bulge" is not inherently dangerous, but when governments are unable to foster work opportunities and platforms for expression and engagements, or the prospects of stability, youth bulge can exacerbate the risks of internal disorders.#_ftn5.

3.3.2.      Adolescence and Youth Health Rights

Contemporary health practitioners see health not as mere absence of disease. Rather it is established that the health encompasses aspects of physical, mental, and social well-being and operates within overall population, development and environment needs of the country.

3.3.3.      Early and Forced Marriages

Young people especially the female youth are faced with many deviations over the issue of marriage. There still exist marriage practices that involve criminal activities i.e. forced and early marriages, etc. The worst comes when these evil actions are performed as customary practices such as wattasatta, vani, paitlikkhi, vulva, etc. Girls are further taken as economic burden due to poverty and they are deprived from schooling and the possibility of making choices in marriages. Gender discrimination is another factor behind restricting girls to homes as soon as possible. The conflicting laws also make room for exploitation of girls into forced and early marriages. 

3.3.4.      Youth Health and Sports

Sports is defined as “all forms of physical activity that contribute to physical fitness, mental well-being and social interaction, such as play, recreation, organized or competitive sport, and indigenous sports and games.”

3.4     Social Empowerment

Youth’s healthy development and integration into the community for common good not only enables individuals but it also would empower families, organizations, and communities gaining control and mastery, within the social, economic, and political contexts of their lives, in order to improve equity and quality of life. The forms of such social empowerment can be: (i) youth volunteerism and community service, (ii) youth mobility and group tourism, (iii) living with cultural diversity - pluralism, peace and harmony, and (iv) identity issues and the role of local languages, arts and music.

3.5     Political Participation and Engagement of Youth

One of the key indicators of youth development is to see how youth are engaged in affairs of communities, schools, governments, civil society organizations and other located structures where youth can learn and demonstrate their potential to act in different learning and caring roles and be mentored for the future roles.

3.5.1.   Civic Responsibility and Citizenship

All youth are citizens and like adults need to gradually learn and practice their citizenship to be active part of their respective societies. Rather if conscious of their civil, political, social and economic rights, they can provide the sound basis for active citizenry. Once sensitized, they will easily practice their citizenship.

3.6     Challenges of Governance:  Mainstreaming Youth Development in Public Policy

3.6.1.   The Marginality of Youth Affairs in Policy Circles

The diversity of youth and its cross cutting nature across sectors and provincial departments radically cuts it from the traditional rhetoric about the cursory mentioning of the potential of youth. It’s a sector in evolving and has been taking the center stage for policy work unlike the past when the very definitions and needs of youth were blurred and confused with education, health, sports and employment for young people.
Such a shift from marginality to the center-stage needs a matching political willingness to make youth part of our national and provincial development plans.

3.6.2.   Integration of Youth Development from Multi-Sector Perspectives

Another challenge is to invent a horizontal governance support system for youth development in the province, because unlike other sectors youth affairs are spread over different provincial departments (i.e. youth affairs, education, population and health, labour, women development, finance, etc.,) and need a coherent and coordinated system for its smooth operations, review and redressel mechanism.

3.6.3.   Arrangements for Public-Private Partnership

Due to little youth policy work in the past the bureaucratic and governance structures will have to be adjusted to multiple partners from the civil society and the private sector and give them space in implementation.

3.6.4.   Information Gap on Youth

Despite much nuisance and the centrality of youth bulge issue, there is too little data available on youth issues in Punjab. We have to mainly generate information from the international and national sources. Relying on the existing information will create information dependencies.
On the practical level, resources’ input for youth can be based upon eight key principles, which are: an organizational structure that is supportive of youth development: a safe, physical environment that is supportive of the youth and staff's needs; a holistic approach to all youth; youth contribution and collaboration; supportive relationships; high expectations and clear limits; activities that are engaging and that foster learning, and mechanisms in place to help youth move forward as young adults. In the nutshell, the youth investment is to promote youth-led initiatives and allowing youth to contribute their ideas for programs, services and special events and projects. The desired paradigm thereby recognizes ‘agency role of the youth’ – to ensure that youth are consulted and included at every stage of reflection, visioning and materializing strategies as dynamic agents of change rather than passive recipients or mere ‘beneficiaries. [6]


4.    Strategic Action Plan: Guidelines for Youth Development in the Punjab

Strategic Action Plan outlines specific actions, as well as advisory guidelines for mainstreaming youth in the public policy making. These guidelines are non-binding in nature. However, Punjab Youth Policy 2012 considers their adoption as progress towards moving to an integrated approach to youth development.

4.1      Economic Empowerment

Strategic guidelines:
1)      Diversification of employment sectors and comprehensive awareness to youth on the available job market;
2)      Mapping of skills and demands of multiple sectors in the job market;
3)      Establishing a programme for certified and standardized technical training for literate and illiterate youth;
4)      Encouraging youth in promotion of local crafts through exhibitions and trade fairs in a collaborative role under the flagship of concerned departments; and
5)      Encouragement of entrepreneurship for youth especially vulnerable youth.

4.1.1.   Skill Development and Vocational Training

1)      It is proposed to carry out an assessment of the demand/ requirements and capacity of the skill development facilities in the Punjab. Based on this assessment technical and skill development programmes will be enhanced. It is proposed that existing schools may be inducted in this programme and a substantial number of schools in public and private sector may start regular evening and weekend programmes for skill development and technical training for which funds would be provided by the government, private sector and development agencies;
2)      The government intends to assign high priority to promoting technical education in the province. A crash programme would be launched to impart technical education to unemployed educated youth and then provide micro-credit to them so that they can become self-employed;
3)      National and international job market analysis would be carried out to identify the requirements of skills in various target markets and our youth be trained in the relevant fields. Besides, support will be extended to our youth to seek jobs and placements locally and in foreign markets;
4)      Vocational Training Institutes in the province will update curriculum in accordance with current requirements and job-opportunities in the Agriculture/ Industrial and Services sectors and prepare a phased expansion programme of such training facilities in rural/ urban areas keeping in view regional considerations regarding youth population, prevailing skill-levels, and unemployment;
5)      Soliciting funding through public/private collaboration for human resource management;
6)      Establishment of job banks to promote youth employment;
7)      Fully activating the concept of “Employer on line” and “Job Bank on line;
8)      Specialized institutions for providing training in area specific needs will be opened e.g. training of agriculture, labor, and business on the pattern of Punjab Skills Development Fund. Similarly training to support tanneries, fans, cutlery, garments industries in relevant industrial areas, etc.
9)      Sectoral initiatives in livestock and dairy development i.e. Rehabilitation of Mustahqeen-i-Zakat (eligible to receive alms money) by promotion of livestock keeping, training of unemployed youth as veterinary workers, replication of Idara-e-Kissan model, provision of milk cooling tanks and promotion of livestock under the Barani Village Development Project.
10)  Establish and encourage local crafts based youth enterprises for income-generation at village and urban-neighborhood level and provide professional assistance for marketing of such enterprise products;
11)  Institute a programme of certification of informally acquired skills by technicians and workers to enable them acquire suitable jobs and financing; and
12)  In cooperation with developing countries, develop and implement strategies for decent and productive work for youth.

4.1.2.   Entrepreneurship

1)      To mitigate risks in new ventures, it is necessary that the risk of trying bright ideas be underwritten by entrepreneurs and our talent is given a chance to succeed. For this purpose the programme envisages creation of a youth venture capital fund to support new developments and implementation of new ideas. This Fund can be subscribed by government, entrepreneurs, corporations, donors, beneficiaries etc;
2)      Creation of small incubator offices equipped with all office facilities for young graduates so that they may work in these incubators to polish up their ideas and implement to venture activities. Such incubators may be set up in universities;
3)      Support and promote Innovation Competition to attract and fund best business ideas.
4)      To facilitate and guide young entrepreneurs regarding procedures for opening of new companies and provide legal advice as needed;
5)      Arrange entrepreneurship and training programme to enable youth to learn from existing enterprises and the companies. Learn the art of making business plans and selling it to the venture capital and other funds;
6)      Enhance the outreach of programmes of the Punjab Small Industries Corporation (PSIC); and
7)      Guide and train youth to do business, to innovate and expand business.
8)      Guide and train small and poor service providers to grow from small occupations into large enterprise;
9)      Create respect for poor and small entrepreneurship (rag to riches empowerment).

4.1.3.   Hassle-free Loaning

1)      Provide financial resources/loans to increase access of poor/low income family youth to training institutions and facilitate those seeking self-employment;
2)      Expansion of micro finance sector in terms of outlets, products and access by the young; and
3)      Create a centralized “Information-System/Data base” on job opportunities for Youth in public and private sector to guide and counsel job-seeking youth.

4.1.4.   Internships, On Campus Job and Job Placements

1)      Developing and promoting Punjab Internship Programme through public-private partnership. It would offer maximum internship opportunities to the youth in government departments, private sector and within the civil society organizations (CSOs);
2)      Reserve 15 % quota for girls in all public-sector employment to ensure that the girls can have equal opportunities of jobs;
3)       In addition to Government programme, encourage large organizations, companies and enterprises to provide internship opportunities equal to at least 5% of their sanctioned/approved strength of officers to young people/graduates with stipends equal to or more than the Government programme;
4)      Require all universities to provide on campus jobs equal to at least 5% of their full time student population;
5)      Encourage all universities to set up offices for awaiting graduates in job placements. The government may also support programmes for job counseling and placement services;
6)      Institute Placement Bureaus through IT interface with all stake holders and maintaining up to date, accurate and increased information flow; and.
7)      Require all autonomous bodies and state owned enterprises to appoint ‘Youth Ambassadors’ on their boards.

4.2       Education for Youth Development

1)      Broaden the definition  of education outcomes beyond literacy;
2)      Clarifying educational aims and objectives so the disparities resulting from multiple school systems can be done away with;
3)      Uniform basic and secondary education to promote integration and social cohesion;
4)      Clarifying set of standards and competencies for students at different education stages irrespective of public, private or religious schooling backgrounds;
5)      Safe/violence free campuses that would attract students instead of creating fear in their minds;
6)      Women participation and leadership programmes;
7)      Promotion of Non formal basic Education programmes;
8)      Public-private partnerships to extend the scope and outreach of education;
9)      Introduction of service learning and community service programmes;
10)  Enhancing Job-skills and aptitude centers/career counseling/placement services on campuses;
11)  Books and research materials and facilities would be made available to the young researchers through internet access, libraries, book banks or book loaning programmes;
12)  Scholarship programmes to include the marginalized areas;
13)  Inclusion of leadership programmes at school, college and university level for grooming students on non-academic basis as well;
14)  Reaching to illiterate youth in streets, towns and villages through literate youth as part of their community service. This two-pronged strategy will not only engage the literate youth in a productive manner but also will help to build the capacity of illiterate youth for becoming more responsible citizens; and
15)  Promoting the culture of peer education on life skills, interactive and leadership skills etc. to equally benefit the literate and illiterate youth.

4.3       Youth Population and Health


4.3.1.   The Youth Bulge and Demographic Transition in Pakistan

1)      Initiate quantitative researches on the regional scale and depths of youth bulge in the Punjab;
2)      Undertake researches on impact of youth bulge in the Punjab, especially focusing upon its link with aspects of development, peace, economy and politics;
3)      Devising sectoral strategies to turn youth bulge into a dividend for the province;
4)      Coordinate youth debates on youth bulge; and
5)      Run youth-led mass awareness campaigns for promoting family planning in the province.

4.3.2.   Adolescence and Youth Health Rights

1)      Adopt policies to address holistic health needs of the youth;
2)      Protection, survival and development of children and youth;
3)      Establish a “Youth Helpline” for counseling of adolescents on their health and reproductive issues;
4)      Undertake education and communication activities in reproduction rights at the school level with cultural sensitivities of the regions in view;
5)      Portrayal of equality of boys and girls through all public messages and curricula; and
6)      Initiate life-skill programmes for children and youth.

4.3.3.   Pro-Youth Legislative Measures on Marriage

1)      Strict measures for implementing laws against forced and early marriages;
2)      Involve religious scholars in the debates against forced and early marriages; and
3)      Essay writing competitions among students on forced and early marriages.

4.3.4.   Youth Health and Sports

1)      The over-all aim is to facilitate actions of concerned departments with collaboration of civil society and the corporate sectors to ensure physical, mental, and social well-being of youth in the Punjab.
2)      Mapping of existing sports facilities and playgrounds in the Punjab and cost planning of the missing facilities;
3)      Ensure that no school without sports facilities is registered;
4)      Provision of playgrounds on the minimum basis of area population;
5)      Organize school level tournaments with the help of local elders and private sector;
6)      Funds generation with the help of private sector by using space of playgrounds;
7)      Persuade young entrepreneurs to run sports events for earning;
8)      Encourage the private sector to spend on sports as part of corporate social responsibility; and
9)      Run youth-led mass campaigns to promote sports by involving celebrities

4.4       Social Empowerment

4.4.1.   Youth Volunteerism and Community Service

1)      The concept of volunteerism would be started at school level: community service would be made complimentary under a Punjab Youth Volunteers Movement (PYVM);
2)      Re-activation of Boys Scout and Girls Guides at school level;
3)      Mentoring of youth on disaster management will also be ensured at school level; and
4)      Volunteerism promotion would ideally get pace with excellent results in an efficient way at the schools where the students would be assigned various community service tasks for out of school youth and the youth on streets, so the two-pronged strategy can simultaneously engage and target diverse groups of youth which would be a huge success.

4.4.2.   Youth Mobility and Group Tourism

1)      Building of new youth hostels;
2)      Inter-provincial youth exchange programmes hosted by local colleges and universities;
3)      Special travel packages for group tourism;
4)      Encouraging the private sector to invest on tourism publishing;
5)      Promotion of local festivals with fundraising potential; and
6)      Use of social media to inform about historical and interesting local places and about private travel and accommodation operators.

4.4.3.   Living with Cultural Diversity - Pluralism, Peace and Harmony

1)      Youth-led mass campaigns for inter-faith and intra-faith harmony;
2)      Strict implementation of laws against hate speech; and
3)      Involve public interest groups including academicians and students in the screening of literature and text books to celebrate cultural and religious diversity of the Punjab.

4.4.4.   Identity Issue and the Role of Local Languages, Arts and Music

1)      Prepare teacher training material for the primary level schooling in Punjabi;
2)      Encourage public and private sector to promote local arts, Sufi festivals and music;
3)      Link business and management schools with entrepreneurial projects of local arts and music; and
4)      Devise strategies to promote local festivals with business potential.

4.5       Political Participation and Engagement of Youth

Strategic guidelines:
1)      Democratic and politically empowered youth is need of the hour. Political empowerment of youth would be materialized by instilling a sense of ownership and legitimacy through their involvement in electoral and legislative process;
2)      The local government needs to spell out inclusion of youth in their working. It is recommended that they should have 5% quota under the new local government laws;
3)      The Political Parties Order 2002 needs a thorough revision to incorporate the democratic and political rights of youth and the due consideration thereof;
4)      Manifestos of political parties should elaborate their youth development agendas;
5)      Sensitization of teachers and parents to discontinue asserting politics a futile exercise calls for serious attention. The concept of monitor at schools is as much political as is the election of a parliamentarian so it needs to be encouraged to instill the right skills among youth at their early ages for better future roles; and
6)      Student unions/councils with pro-peace, women friendly and student centered politics need to be established at colleges and universities. Such unions should have minimum criteria for their leaders and have to be delinked with mainstream political parties.

4.5.1     Civic Responsibility and Citizenship

1)      Build knowledge of youth through curricula and mass campaigns on their civil, political, social and economic rights; so that they can practice citizenship.
a.       Such rights include freedom of movement, right to privacy, freedom of speech, thought and religion, right to information, right to justice and equal treatment; right to vote, right to stand for political office, right to assemble; right to education, security and health; and right to own property, to conclude valid contracts and to maximize economic welfare.
b.      Their citizenship practice would include social responsibility, civil campaigns, demanding government accountability, volunteering and mutual help, voting, demanding justice, legal literacy, civic education, active use of media, and monitoring service quality and public spending.
2)      Civics topics should be part of curricula;
3)      Promotion of youth associations on campuses and in communities;
4)      Engaging youth in mass campaigns and emergencies;
5)      Annual awards to those youth group which have successfully implemented projects to promote youth rights; and
6)      Encourage private sector companies to dedicate a substantial part of their Corporate Social Responsibility Programmes on youth development.


5.    Institutional Mechanism for Implementation

In order to implement the organic incipient initiatives in the Punjab Youth Policy 2012 requires implementation strategies dovetailed with framework of action with detailed plans and sequential matrix. In order to establish a robust, workable, viable and efficient institutional mechanism for implementation, there is a need to establish an autonomous organization. The proposed organization i.e. Punjab Youth Development Foundation (PYDF) will have a legal cover through an act of legislature. Youth Affairs, Sports, Archaeology and Tourism Department will prepare a draft for a new legislation with the nomenclature of Punjab Youth Development Foundation Act 2012, after the approval of the policy by the competent forum. The Foundation will be headed by a Board of Directors. The members of the Punjab Youth Commission will also be members of Board of the Punjab Youth Development Foundation.

5.1        Proposed Punjab Youth Development Foundation

1)      Chief Minister Punjab will nominate the Chairperson of Punjab Youth Development Foundation
2)      Youth Affairs, Sports, Archaeology and Tourism Department will be the administrative department for Punjab Youth Development Foundation.
3)      PYDF will be a body corporate with independent in terms of management, finances and implementation of the programmes
4)      PYDF will have an independent system of monitoring and evaluation directly reporting to the Chairman instead of Managing Director/CEO
5)      PYDF will be headed by a Managing Director/CEO reporting to the Board i.e. Punjab Youth Commission;
6)      PYDF will comprise of professional and technical staff to carry out the purpose of Punjab Youth Policy 2012.
7)      PYDF will lead the process of mainstreaming the public policies of the province with youth development as a cross cutting theme;
8)      PYDF mission would be to help public sector institutions, NGOs, FBOs, CBOs, civil society organizations and the corporate entities to increase efficiency, effectiveness and responsiveness to the development needs of youth and adolescents.
9)      PYDF, following the principle of Public-Private Partnership, will create partnerships with organizations in the public sector, private sector and the civil society to achieve the aim and the objectives of the Policy.
10)  PYDF will also act as custodian and secretariat of the Chief Minister’s Youth Development Programme.
11)  PYDF will create and maintain a database and mapping of youth development organizations, support organizations and donors working in Punjab as well as a database of youth classified with respect to socio-economic backgrounds;
12)  PYDF will coordinate, regulate and promote youth development organizations
13)  PYDF will operate the Punjab Youth Endowment Fund to carry out its activities.
14)  PYDF will be a body corporate created as a result of an enactment by the Punjab Assembly.

5.2        Proposed Punjab Youth Commission

A number of provincial departments, organizations, NGOs, various international donors, philanthropists, corporate bodies, NGOs and community-based organizations are already engaged in youth empowerment activities in their respective fields. The implementation of the plan will thus heavily rely on the existing institutions. Essentially it will require these institutions to pay specific attention to youth development by enhancing and augmenting existing programmes, capacity building and increased financing in consonance with the Punjab Youth Policy 2012. To create synergy, harmony and increased coordination in programmes of various institutions, a Punjab Youth Commission will be set up comprising youth members from civil society organizations, youth affairs department and other stakeholders. The members of the PYC shall together constitute the Board of Directors of PYDF and the PYDF will form its Secretariat. The main function of this commission will be to give impetus to harmonious implementation of Youth Policy, monitoring of performance and to provide overall guidance. The Commission will comprise of:
                                i.            Chairman, to be nominated by the Chief Minister Punjab
                              ii.            Secretary, Youth Affairs, Sports, Archaeology and Sports Department
                            iii.            MD/CEO of PYDF as ex-officio Secretary
                            iv.            Elected members of National and Provincial Assemblies
                              v.            Member of the Punjab Assembly’s Standing Committee on Youth
                            vi.            Youth Representatives
                          vii.            Heads of Youth organizations
                        viii.            Head of civil society organizations
                            ix.            Head/Senior Management of Corporate bodies/Private Sector entities
                              x.            Academics of very high eminence and erudition nominated by Higher Education Department after seeking approval of the Chief Minister Punjab
                            xi.            Media
                          xii.            Religious Scholars
The Commission will:
1.      Give vision, strategic directions and institutional roadmap for the empowerment of youth in the social, economic and political life of the youth as enunciated in the Punjab Youth Policy 2012;
2.      Monitor achievement of strategic goals and the progress of action points/ strategies by the Foundation;
3.      Support the Foundation to build public-private partnerships;
4.      Ensure adequate resources to achieve the mission, including assisting in fund raising for youth development in the Punjab;
5.      Maintain transparency and ethical standards and enforce the Code of Corporate Governance on the Foundation;
6.      Submit an annual report on the Status of Youth in the Punjab.
Given the scope of Foundation’s work, it is recommended that necessary legal and procedural arrangements, in the form of an enactment by the Punjab Assembly, are made for its smooth working in an autonomous manner.

5.3        Advisors to the Chief Minister on Youth Development

In pursuance of the establishment of the Punjab Youth Commission, the Chief Minister of the Province shall appoint two Advisors on Youth, one male and one female, who will report to the Chief Minister and shall act as liaison between the Chief Minister and the Foundation. These Advisors will be ex-officio members of the Punjab Youth Commission.

5.4        Youth Development Organizations

Punjab Youth Policy 2012 acknowledges any organization working for youth development, as defined earlier, either as its main mission or as a part of its programs, duly registered and functioning under an appropriate law, but necessarily affiliated and enrolled with the proposed PYDF, will be considered and called a Youth Development Organization (YDOs) for the purpose of qualification of working with the Foundation. YDOs can be broadly classified as Youth-led and Youth-serving; whereby a youth-led organization is primarily led by young people; and a youth-serving organization, may or may not be youth-led, performs, fully or partially, youth development functions. Punjab Youth Policy 2012 also acknowledges the work done by the donors, private sector, charities, foundations and local community based groups and organizations all working for youth development to some or greater degree. Thus, the youth development organizations, groups, private sector organizations, donors, and other support organizations working for youth together comprise a constituency of the proposed Foundation.

5.5        District and Tehsil Youth Councils

District and Tehsil Youth Councils will ensure youth participation in the implementation of policy with the help of youth from community organizations and local administration. These councils will be strictly voluntary in nature to be formed by the youth themselves essentially to forge a direct link between the youth and the policies of the PYDF.

5.6        Punjab Youth Endowment Fund

Establishment of the Punjab Youth Endowment Fund will be materialized through public-private partnership and collaboration of national and international development agencies. The Punjab Youth Development Foundation will administer the fund. Government of the Punjab will make available one time grant as seed money and resources will be generated by the Punjab Youth Commission through donations and contributions in the form of cross cheque into the accounts of Punjab Youth Endowment Fund.

5.7        Monitoring and Evaluation

Monitoring and evaluation units would be established for policy implementing departments or organizations to assess the impact and progress of the policy. The Punjab Youth Commission shall prepare an annual progress report on state of youth in the Punjab during the preceding year and convey it to the government for its submission to the Punjab Assembly for discussion and approval.

6.    Youth Development: Achievements by Government of the Punjab

Punjab Youth Policy envisages and demonstrates the unswerving commitment of the Government of Punjab to empower youth in the province and provides a comprehensive policy framework for integrated visioning and planning, implementation and coordination in all government departments and initiate programmes in public-private partnership with regard to matters relating to youth development in the Punjab. Some of the initiatives undertaken by the Punjab Government for youth development and youth empowerment are reproduced here.

6.1      Chief Minister Youth Development Programme

Under the Chief Minister Youth Development Programme, landmark initiatives have been taken and are now being implemented. They include but are not limited to Daanish Schools Laptop Awards, and PEEF Scholarships. An exclusive website www.youth.punjab.gov.pk has been set-up to provide details of these initiatives.
In order to address the issues of equity, Government of the Punjab has already established Punjab Daanish School System &Centers of Excellence Authority. Provision of quality education is priority area of the Government of the Punjab. Daanish School and Center of Excellence Authority has been established in 2010. The Poorest of the poor are now getting education of international standards in these institutions. Six Daanish Schools have already been established and fifteen will be established in next one year. 72 existing schools will be converted into Centers of Excellence in Phase-1.Major components of the scheme include: Provision of infrastructural facilities; boarding and lodging facilities; Establishment of science and I.T. Labs; Establishment of Libraries and Provision of transport facilities; Construction of state of the art buildings for Daanish Schools.
The objective of laptop award Programme is to provide free laptops to 100 thousand brilliant students currently studying at public sector colleges and universities or high achievers of the Boards of Punjab in Matriculation Examinations. The Programme is being extended to the brilliant students of other provinces including GilgitBaltistan and Azad Kashmir. The motivation and enthusiasm behind this scheme is to help students rise above problems and hurdles they face in their path to gain knowledge and excel professionally.
The Punjab Educational Endowment Fund (PEEF) has been setup for providing scholarships to deserving and talented students so that they can persue higher education. To make it more efficient, transparent and autonomous in its functioning, it has been established under Section 42 of the Companies Ordinance, 1984. The Endowment fund has been established with initial seed money of Rs 2 billion, which is proposed to be raised subsequently. Investment proceeds out of this fund will be utilized for providing the scholarships. At this point, students belonging to Government institutions are considered for these scholarships. However, it will be extended to other sectors in due course of time. Allocation of these scholarships is on the basis of Tehsil and district wise results of students. Special treatment is given to the students of fifteen less developed districts of the Southern Punjab. There have been also special quotas allocated to orphans and children of Government employees (up to BS-14), disabled, minorities and widows. Bright and needy students of other provinces including Azad Kashmir will also be provided opportunities for higher education through this programme.
Some of the key achievements of the Chief Minister Youth Development Programme are:
·         25,000 talented students are studying in Universities, Medical Colleges and Engineering Universities on scholarships funded by PEEF.
·         Punjab Education Foundation (PEF) is providing free education to 1.1 million students approximately. There are 2,129 schools running with the partnership of Punjab Education Foundation having students from less affluent households, getting free quality education.
·         In order to ensure merit and equal opportunity to all young educated people, Public Service Commission has been given absolute autonomy and all important recruitments have been done through Punjab Public Service Commission.
·         All reserved quotas, in Medical College admissions and universities, have been abolished.
·         Approximately 4,500 High Schools have been provided Computer Laboratories in Punjab.
·         26 leading colleges in Punjab have started a four year degree program as globally only 16 years of education is recognized for a degree.
·         Toppers and talented students have been honored with cash prizes, and sent on study visits to best universities in Turkey and Europe.
·         Toppers of Metric and Intermediate are honored with Guard of Honour at Government House Murree.
·         The Punjab House Murree extension block built for VIPs has been dedicated to talented young students.
·         Debating Competitions a discontinued practice has been institutionalized all over Punjab in educational institutions. An investment of Rs 150 Million has been dedicated for such extracurricular activities.
·         Public Sector School at all levels have been revitalized, by providing missing facilities like, furniture, electricity, boundary walls, drinking water and teachers.
·         Daanish School System has been established to give Quality Education like Aitchison College, and Cadet Colleges to poor talented students in under developed regions like Rahim Yar Khan, Bahawalpur, Bahawalnagar.
·         Measures have been institutionalized to make the examination system cheating free and restore the credibility of examination system.
·         87 new Degree Colleges (mostly Girls Colleges) are in final stages of completion worth approximately Rs. 6 Billion under PSDP, SPDP and Special Packages for the Districts.
·         Grant-in-aid to 16 autonomous bodies/universities of approximately Rs. One Billion for quality education to lower-middle class students on meager fee/expenses.
·         Rs. 5 Billion Spent for provision of missing facilities, purchase of nearly 250 buses particularly for the Girls students and computers in 367 Colleges of the Province.
·         Establishment of Medical Colleges at DG Khan, Sahiwal, Sialkot, Gujranwala and Gujrat. An amount of approximately Rs 2 Billion have been made available for the schemes.
·         Establishment of 8 Model Children Homes in the Punjab at D.G.Khan (Male/Famale) Narowal (Male/Female), Rawalpindi (Male), Sialkot (Female), Gujranwala (Female), Sargodha (Male).
·         75 one room community schools have been established in the remotest parts of Cholistan where more than 6000 students are enrolled.
·         A Bio Diversity Park is nearing completion in Cholistan.

6.2      Chief Minister’s School Roadmap

The Government of Punjab is resilient to achieve the Constitutional and Statutory obligations and political leadership has expressed firm commitment for the enforcement of Article 25-A. A comprehensive strategy is being formulated to achieve the goal and assume new roles and responsibilities after the 18th Constitutional Amendment. The Chief Minister’s School Roadmap is a step in this direction [7] .  The education system in Punjab is diverse and rich at primary level. There are varied kinds of institutions, imparting education to the masses. The educational institutions range from Provincial Government Public Schools, Federal Government Schools, Madrasahs, Cadet Colleges, Missionary Schools, Garrison Institutes and Privately owned low cost and Elite Schools.

6.3      Enhancing the Quality of College Education

Government of the Punjab has embarked upon a comprehensive plan to enhance the quality of college education with special focus on improvement of physical infrastructure of college. Under PESRP, the department has provided missing/additional infrastructure facilities like boundary wall, toilets, building, furniture, etc. to the colleges all over the Punjab.
For provision of facilities to colleges like transport and equipment, an umbrella scheme was approved by the PDWP for a cost of Rs 1068.810 million. For 2011, the government allocated Rs 1.46 billion to provide missing facilities to colleges, and Rs100 million to improve physical infrastructure of colleges under the PESRP.
The Punjab Higher Education Department is also committed to introduce a four-year bachelors’ degree programme in public colleges across the province in line with the programme launched in 26 colleges in 12 districts of Punjab. Postgraduate facility to all colleges at district headquarters was also planned and for immediate execution, the government has identified three sites: Government Islamia College for Boys and Girls, Narowal; Government Degree College for Boys, Rajanpur; and Government Degree College for Boys, Lodhran. A sum of Rs30 million were allocated for computer labs in all colleges in the province. A piece of land (worth Rs 4 billion) was demarcated for the setting of Knowledge City in Rakh Dera, Chahal.
Following devolution of the Education Ministry in the wake of 18th Amendment, the Punjab will implement setting up of cadet colleges in Pasrur, Chua Saiden Shah and Essa Khel.

6.4      Focus on Special Education

After the creation of an independent department of special education in October, 2003, a substantial increase in enrollment of students in the institutions of special education has been achieved, 300% increase during the period 2005 - 2009. This has reached to allocation of 500 million PKR in 2011-2012. This has been possible due to various incentives by Government of the Punjab, Special Education Department that includes: Monthly stipend @ Rs.200/- per student; free uniform; free text and Braille books; free pick and drop facility; free boarding and lodging facility; free milk pack of 250 ML daily; merit scholarship; 36-buildings with special facilities to special education centers; cochlear implant devices to hearing impaired students; up-gradation of institutions of Special Education.

6.5      Modern Education for Students of Deeni Madaris

Government of the Punjab has introduced formal subjects including market-oriented and skills-based subjects that would enable the children graduating from Deeni Madaris to have more employment options. Government of the Punjab made arrangements for printing of rare books on Islam, charts and materials relating to Islamic injunctions and their distribution amongst libraries of schools, colleges, universities, research institutions and Deeni Madaris. Government of the Punjab has ensured that textual and other learning materials do not contain anything repugnant to Islamic injunctions and controversial material against any sect.

6.6      Self-Employment and Entrepreneurship Promotion

Punjab Small Industries Corporation is endeavoring to help the skilled unemployed youth through self-employment, entrepreneurship and starting small businesses. The Government of the Punjab allocated Rs.1.0 billion in budget estimates of 2011-12 as interest free loan to PSIC through Public Private Partnership [8] . The initiative has been piloted and can be scaled up after initial evaluation of the micro finance scheme and third party evaluation. The loan parameters are: total loan portfolio of PKR 1.0 billion; interest free loan size: up to PKR 50,000/- only; repayment period from borrowers: up to 3 years; mode of repayment of interest free loan: on monthly basis; interest rate to be charged from borrowers: 0%; loan application fee: up to PKR 200.

6.7      Women Economic Empowerment

Punjab Bank initiated Women Entrepreneurship Financing Scheme for loans for commercial ventures by women for initiatives including: day care centers, bakeries, eateries, catering, furniture, interior designing, boutiques, fitness gyms, event management, vocational institutes, driving schools, jewelry, clothing and accessories, and any other feasible projects. Business Development Services to be extended by Bank of Punjab; Job creation  shall be one of the criteria for approval of loan application by the Bank of Punjab; Green field projects shall also be eligible.

6.8      Special Initiative for Youth in Jails

Punjab Youth Policy 2012 recognizes that the youth in jail needs to be rehabilitated through counseling, that is the only way to helps them relate back to a normal life. Two special Jails for keeping juvenile prisoners are functioning at Bahawalpur and Faisalabad known as Borstal Institution and Juvenile Jails (B.I & J Jails). In other jails, one special portion is set apart for keeping of juvenile prisoners. After conviction, these prisoners are shifted to B.I & J. Jails., located at Bahawalpur and Faisalabad where they are imparted training in different trades for the reformation of the Juvenile prisoners and transforming them into better human to reintegrate them in the society by enlightening them with general education, vocational training, religious education and other moral developments [9] .

6.9      Vocational Training Programmes

Vocational training programmes have been started in trades like computer training, electrician course, electrical wiring, tailoring and sewing. Cultural complex facilities are provided for indoor games [10] . Government of the Punjab has formulated a policy for the Home Based Workers covering the strategies, plans and programs for the protection and promotion of rights and benefit of Home Based Workers, mostly comprising female workers.

6.10 Punjab Sports and Student Competitions

Government of the Punjab launched the biggest sports festival in the history of Pakistan at Union Council, Tehsil, District and Division Levels. The mega-event was organized in February-March 2012 and covered 15 different sports categories. According to independent sources a total of 650,000 sportspersons participated in this massive effort [11] to promote sports at grass root level and to demonstrate channelizing energies of the youth in positive and healthy manner.
Another distinguished initiative of the Punjab Government is to hold annual competitions of speeches, essay writing and arts among students. This was started with a view to character building and personality development of the students from Primary to Postgraduate level. These competitions start from the Markaz Levels and culminate at the Provincial Level.
Students at different tier of education i.e. Primary, Elementary, Secondary, Higher Secondary, Intermediate, Degree and Postgraduate take part in these annual contests. Millions of students so far have directly and indirectly become part of their proceedings and demonstrate a successful model of youth engagement. 


7.    History of Youth Policy

The mentioning of youth brings along a field of promise and potential for the national life. Both our public and policy circles frequently repeat their allegiance to the idea of youth participation in the state and society. However, in the procedural and policy framework of the country it was not until June 1989 that a youth affairs division was established at the federal level. It further took 20 years to formulate the first national youth policy in 2009. With the devolution of the federal youth ministry (2010) under the Constitution (Eighteenth Amendment) Act 2010, now the provinces have exclusive authority over subject of youth affairs.
The Federal Ministry of Youth Affairs was created on November 18, 2005. It presented the National Youth Policy (NYP) in December 2008 which was approved in February 2009. Before the formulation of National Youth Policy, there were a number of ministries and organizations that were working in various areas related to youth. However, the aim of the policy was to integrate their programmes and provide overall sense of direction consistent with the needs of the country.
Prior to this, four drafts of the National Youth Policy were prepared: in 1989, 1993, 2002 and 2004. The NYP draft prepared in 1989 wasn’t presented to the Cabinet and was only issued to the press on 21 June 1989. The second draft of the NYP (1993) was prepared by a foreign consultant, but not presented to the Cabinet. The key policy change came in 2001 when the government started consulting with civil society on the National Youth Policy. Between May 2001 and January 2002, the Federal Ministry of Culture, Sports and Youth Affairs organized consultative provincial and national workshops for the first time. In the light of these consultations, t he  Ministry of Youth Affairs with the active participation of provincial youth departments, civil society organizations and students were able to prepare a comprehensive NYP (2002). And it is through this process that the 2004 draft was prepared. [12]
The approval of the first National Youth Policy by the federal cabinet in 2009 could not be developed as an opportunity to start an integrated process of youth development. The President of Pakistan signed the 18th amendment to the constitution into law on 19th April 2010, which proclaimed provincial autonomy, abolished the Concurrent Legislative List and shifted powers to the provinces. The Federal Government initially devolved five federal ministries including Ministry of Youth Affairs to provinces in 2010 to give effect to the devolution of powers under the Constitution (Eighteenth Amendment) Act 2010.
According to the new arrangements under the devolution plan, international affairs, foreign aid and inter-provincial matters would now be overseen by the federation while legislation powers regarding youth, youth organization forum and youth centers have been delegated to the provinces. Economic Affairs Division (EAD) in Islamabad would handle international aspects/ agreements and aid coordination. National Internship Programme and National Volunteer Movement would be the responsibility of the Establishment Division and the Islamabad Capital Territory (ICT)/ Interior Division would run youth centres and hostels in the ICT.

7.1      Youth Affairs in the Punjab

In the wake of the Constitution (18th Amendment) Act 2010, the subject of youth affairs has been devolved to provinces. In the Punjab, the Information, Culture & Youth Affairs (ICYA) department initially took this responsibility and eventually prepared a draft of the Punjab Youth Policy in August 2011. The draft was then put before the civil society for their feedback and recommendations in a thorough consultative process engaging almost all stakeholders.

7.1.1. Evolution of Youth Affairs Department in the Punjab

On 24th February 1999, a notification No.CAB-1/2-1/96 added the following clauses concerning youth in the domain of Information, Culture & Youth Affairs Department:
1-      Coordination of activities of Youth Organizations.
2-      Arranging seminars/exhibitions etc. relating to such events as International Youth Year, National Youth Festivals, Sports events, etc.
3-      Arranging Inter- Provincial and International visits by the Youth delegation
On 14th Oct 2011, a new Department of Youth Affairs, Archaeology, Sports and Tourism was created and the subject of ‘Youth Affairs’ was assigned to this newly created department of Government of the Punjab .
The notification for creation of this new department states as follows:
“In exercise of the powers conferred under Article 139 of the Constitution of Islamic Republic of Pakistan read with Rule 3 (2) of the Punjab Government Rules of Business 2011, Chief Minister has been pleased to constitute a new department namely “Youth Affairs, Sports, Archeology and Tourism Department” by separating Youth Affairs Wing & Director General of Archeology from IC & YA Department, Sports Wing from Higher Education Department and Tourism from Forestry, Wildlife, Fisheries & Tourism Department, with immediate effect.”
Government of the Punjab formulated the Rules of Business 2011 [13] for the new department i.e. Youth Affairs, Sports, Archaeology and Tourism Department:-
1.         Legislation, policy formulation and sectoral planning regarding Youth Affairs, Archaeology and Tourism
2.         Management of and regulations relating to Archaeology
3.         Coordination with:
            (a)        Federal Government on all matters relating to youth organizations and
            (b)        Federal and other Provincial Governments for arranging visits of the youth             delegations
4.         Conservation of all ancient and historical monuments, archaeological sites and remains in the Province
5.         Promotion of sports through:
            (a)        Infrastructure development
            (b)        Talent scouting, sports competitions etc
            (c)        Production of films and literature/reading material and
            (d)       Technology
6.         Sports facilities including stadia, gymnasia, play-fields and sports hostels
7.         Training, coaching programs and sports workshops
8.         Coordination with:
            (a)        Pakistan Sports Board
            (b)        Sports Boards of other provinces and federal territories and
            (c)        Sports federations, associations, organizations and clubs
9.         Sports event management
10.       Welfare of the sportsmen
11.       Promotion of tourism and hotel industry in the Province of the Punjab
12.       Research and training in various disciplines of tourism
13.       Regulations and control of tourist industry and allied services, including hotels, restaurants, travel guides and travel agents
14.       Organization of inland and foreign tours
15.       Budget, accounts and audit matters
16.       Purchase of stores and capital goods for the department
17.       Service matters except those entrusted to Services and General Administration Department
Basic functions under youth affairs include:
1.      International youth exchange programme
2.      Development of youth centers
3.      National youth award programme
4.      Youth conferences
5.      National youth camps
6.      Youth programmes for computer literacy
7.      Youth conventions
8.      Youth literary competitions
9.      Recognition of top position holders in education at National level
10.  Development of the Chief Minister Youth Commission
11.  Projection of Punjab Youth Councils


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[1] European Union: “Youth - Investing and Empowering”, EU Youth Report, Commission Staff Working Document, Brussels 27 April 2009.
[2] World Gazetteer URL:  http://www.worldgazetteer.com/wg.php?x=&men=gpro&lng=en&des=wg&geo
[3] Senge, M Peter.  The Fifth Discipline: The Art and Practice of the Learning Organization, Random House: 20 Vauxhall Bridge Road London SWIVZSA, 2006.
[4] Hou, Xiaohui. Challenges for Youth Employment in Pakistan: Are They Youth-Specific?  World Bank Policy Research Working Paper Series, No. 5544, World Bank: Washington, Jan 2011.
[5] U.S. Census Bureau, International Data Base. Midyear Population, by Youth Age Groups – Pakistan.  2012
[6] Mack, Cassandra.  Smart Moves That Successful Youth Workers Make - Strategies for Empowered Living, New York: 2005.
[7] Government of the Punjab. Chief Minister’s Secretariat: School Roadmap for 100% Enrolment and Retention,
[8] Khawaja, Farhan Aziz. Managing Director Punjab Small Industries Corporation, minutes of the meeting on
draft youth policy, April 13, 2012
[9] Bhutta, Shahid Ahmed, Additional Secretary Home Department Letter No. PS/AS(H)Y.A/2012, April 17, 2012
[10] Ibid.
[11] Daily Dawn, 29 Feb 2012, URL: http://dawn.com/2012/02/29/punjab-sports-festival-final-round-begins/
[12] Shahab, Zahid. Interventions of CSOs towards the First youth Policy of Pakistan in Good News for Troubled Contexts: Lessons learned from case studies on how civil society organisations influence policy processes, Enrique Mendizabal (EDT.), Overseas Development Institute: London – UK, May 2006.
[13] Government of the Punjab. The Rules of Business 2012, Lahore. Rules 1 and 3 are directly relevant with the subject of youth affairs.